BY- SAMAIRA GULERIA
WHAT IS GENE EDITING?
Genome editing, is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism. Unlike early genetic engineering techniques that randomly inserts genetic material into a host genome, genome editing targets the insertions to site specific locations.
WHERE IS IT USED?
–To cure many diseases Genome editing has been used to modify human blood cells that are then put back into the body to treat conditions including leukemia and AIDS.
–For research purpose Genome editing has also been used to change the DNA in organisms and understand the functioning of those cells
–For biotechnology Genome editing has been used in agriculture as well to genetically modify crops to improve their yields and resistance towards weeds.
–For cellular agriculture Genome editing can also be used for cellular agriculture wherein meat is produced without actually killing animals.
How does genome editing work?
- Genome editing uses a type of enzyme called an ‘engineered nuclease’ which cuts the genome in a specific place.
- Engineered nucleases are made up of two parts:
- A nuclease part that cuts the DNA.
- A DNA-targeting part that is designed to guide the nuclease to a specific sequence of DNA.
- After cutting the DNA in a specific place, the cell will naturally repair the cut.
- We can manipulate this repair process to make changes (or ‘edits’) to the DNA in that location in the genome.
WHAT IS CRISPR?
CRISPR technology is a simple yet powerful tool for editing genomes. It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. It includes correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases and improving crops.
- CRISPR-Cas9 is the most common, cheap and efficient system used for genome editing.
- CRISPR stands for ‘clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats’.
- Cas9 stands for CRISPR-associated protein 9, and is the nuclease part that cuts the DNA.